Relationship between lifestyle and chronic development of type II diabetes mellitus in Jackson West Medical Hospital patients
Introduction to the Problem
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2020) affirms that there are currently more than 442 million users with diabetes worldwide and points out that this number will more than double by the year 2030 and recommends taking measures with the utmost urgency. In developing countries, it is estimated that deaths from diabetes will increase by 80%, and 50% of this death corresponds to people under 70 years of age, and more than half of the deaths are women. It can be said that at present, diabetes mellitus is a disease with a high prevalence and mortality among the adult population. It is a metabolic disorder of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins caused by a lack of insulin.
At present, science has very significant advances. Today, diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects a very high rate of people, primarily adults. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the body does not produce insulin; in type II diabetes mellitus, the body produces insulin defective or in minimal amounts. However, this disease has no cure, but there are different methods to maintain the health of patients to control blood sugar levels (WHO, 2020). The control of this disease could be facilitated if the users combined an adequate lifestyle with their pharmacological treatment.
On the other hand, in America, there are 59 million people with diabetes mellitus; within the most affected countries is the United States, with 29 million people, followed by Colombia and Argentina. In the United States, based on the epidemiological control of diabetes mellitus in the first six months of 2019, more than 5,000 cases of this disease have been registered each year since 2013, according to the 160 hospitals reporting to the CDC (2021). Regarding the United States, particularly eating habits are undergoing a very accelerated change, increasing the consumption of foods with a very high content of saturated fats and sugars, sedentary lifestyle, and little physical activity; These factors increase the rate of overweight and obesity, which are the leading causes of the increase in diabetes mellitus, Similarly, WHO (2020) refers to the high rate of obesity, which is the cause of the increase in diabetes mellitus, is also linked to a change in unhealthy eating habits and little physical activity.
Clearly Identify the Problem
In the United States, diabetes mellitus affects approximately 29 million people, one of the leading causes of death. In such a way that poor eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle can be one of the leading causes of diabetes mellitus, increasing the possibility of developing medical complications, such as heart attacks, amputations, kidney failure, and stroke (United Nations organization, 2020).
At Jackson West Medical Hospital, diabetes is also a public health problem, with the majority of patients who attend the clinics have increased weight and others are already obese. During the consultation, it is common for these patients to refer to a diet high in carbohydrates, especially potatoes, rice, and noodles, particularly by patients of Latino origin and with low economic resources. Another important aspect is health coverage since in these patients the comprehensive health insurance cannot cover the demand for their medications; therefore, they can comply with 50% of the prescribed treatment for diabetes mellitus; in addition to this, these patients deny having time to exercise, and report a high predisposition to the consumption of alcohol and tobacco.
Likewise, these patients claim to consume foods high in fat and easily accessible, that is, fast food. Another aspect that worsens their situation by not complying with their consultations because the hospital only schedules 18 appointments a day for each of the two doctors. The staff has observed a high incidence of clinical manifestations, neuropathies, diabetic foot, retinopathy, and kidney problems regarding the health care team. They must be referred to specialists for their respective treatment.
Significance of the problem to Nursing
As for nursing, it includes two aspects, health promotion, and disease prevention. In such a way that nursing is responsible for aspects that directly affect these patients, such as lifestyles, physical activities, daily routines or eating habits, quality of sleep, consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, stimulants, among others; distinguishing two categories: those that maintain health and promote longevity and those that limit or are harmful and reduce life expectancy (Franz, 2019). In type II diabetes, inappropriate lifestyle practices increase poor metabolic control, hence morbidity and mortality, thus producing premature deaths. In this regard, the WHO (2019) points out that 2.7 million annual deaths are attributable to insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables and 1.9 million are attributable to physical inactivity; therefore, international organizations dedicated to developing type II diabetes, including the WHO, recommend maintaining a good lifestyle practice.
In such a way that from nursing, it is possible to implement good health behaviors to correct bad habits and promote good health behaviors already established in these patients to reduce mortality and morbidity from this disease. However, it is essential to allow health professionals to identify the lifestyles that play a decisive role in the evolution of diseases and especially in chronic ones; here, nurses have a vital role in the health team since they have the function of identifying unhealthy behaviors, supporting the patient in their medical treatment, and providing psychological support through health education programs.
Purpose of the research
The purpose of this study is to provide essential and updated information on type II diabetes mellitus for healthcare personnel and any citizen interested in investigating, complementing, or implementing the information that this study produces as a result. According to statistics, diabetes mellitus is a disease that is the leading cause of limb amputation, acute heart attacks, and early death. Worldwide, this disease has been classified as a public health problem. Different types of actions have been taken to prevent this disease; however, its incidence is increasing. At present, more than 50% of outpatient consultations in hospitals are for this cause (WHO, 2019). Therefore, this study aims to serve future research and promote good nursing practices through reliable information that promotes the quality of life of the population diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus.
What are the lifestyles of patients with type II diabetes mellitus who attend a Jackson West Medical Hospital consultation?
Is there a relationship between the lifestyles of patients with type II diabetes mellitus who attend a consultation at Jackson West Medical Hospital and the status of the disease?
Is there a higher prevalence of chronic comorbidities in patients with type II diabetes mellitus who attend a consultation at Jackson West Medical Hospital concerning unhealthy lifestyles?