PICOT Question

PICOT Question

Part 2: Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews Create a 6- to 7-slide PowerPoint presentation ( introduction and references page do not count ) in which you do the following: · Identify and briefly describe your chosen clinical issue of interest. · Describe how you developed a PICO(T) question focused on your chosen clinical issue of interest. · Identify the four research databases that you used to conduct your search for the peer-reviewed articles you selected. · Provide APA citations of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected. · Describe the levels of evidence in each of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected, including an explanation of the strengths of using systematic reviews for clinical research. Be specific and provide examples.–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent 81 (81.00%) – 90 (90.00%)

Good 72 (72.00%) – 80 (80.00%)

Fair 63 (63.00%) – 71 (71.00%)

Poor 0 (0.00%) – 62 (62.00%)

Written Expression and Formatting—Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided, which delineates all required criteria.–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent 5 (5.00%) – 5 (5.00%)

Good 4 (4.00%) – 4 (4.00%)

Fair 3.5 (3.50%) – 3.5 (3.50%)

Poor 0 (0.00%) – 3 (3.00%)

Running head: IDENTIFYING RESARCH METHODOLOGIES 1

IDENTIFYING RESARCH METHODOLOGIES 8

Research Methodologies Matrix

Full citation of selected article

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4

McLeod, A., & Dolezel, D. (2018). Cyber-analytics: Modeling factors associated with healthcare data breaches. Decision Support Systems, Science Direct. 108, 57-68.

Pathak, P. R., & Chou, A. (2019). Confidential care for adolescents in the US Health Care System. Journal of patient-centered research and reviews, 6(1), 46.

Seh, A. H., Zarour, M., Alenezi, M., Sarkar, A. K., Agrawal, A., Kumar, R., & Ahmad Khan, R. (2020, June). Healthcare data breaches: Insights and implications. In Healthcare (Vol. 8, No. 2, p. 133). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Walker-Roberts, S., Hammoudeh, M., & Dehghantanha, A. (2018). A systematic review of the availability and efficacy of countermeasures to internal threats in healthcare critical infrastructure. IEEE Access, 6, 25167-25177.

Reason for choosing the research article and how it relates to the issue of confidentiality in healthcare industry.

I selected this piece as it discourses the influences of data breaches and information confidentiality in the healthcare organizations.

I picked this piece of research as it offers the relevant information that can be used in caring for the youth in the mental health care facility by protecting their sensitive information. According to the researchers, the confidentiality of patient information is considered to be a human right and an evidence-based element of delivering quality care. Unluckily, there are complexities in the American healthcare and legal systems that develop a setting that presents confidential care to all patients especially the adolescents.

I selected this study as I can meaningfully use it in my research about confidentiality breach.

Innovative healthcare services have cleared a way for the development of simpler and easier access to healthcare services and quality treatment that make life healthy. I am interested in this article as it discusses the fact that the healthcare system in the present day is highly exposed to the external threats to information security breach. Therefore, this topic makes data breaches a major concern for the information security professionals as they may affect clients, organizations, stakeholders, and businesses if not addressed.

I chose this research article because the insider threats are increasingly becoming a huge threat to information breaches in healthcare organization. This peer-reviewed research article clearly addresses these issues in a systematic way.

The main purpose/ aim of the research

The foremost intention of this examination was to safeguard the privacy of patient data by directing a private health information disclosure to regulate the susceptibility of patient info to security breach.

The leading goal of this peer-reviewed item was to examine the national laws and guidelines that propose the least

Standards for the fortification of patient discretion, providing superior healthcare services, and increasing large changeability for the teenage privacy.

The principal drive of this reading was to offer comprehensions to diverse types of data breaches in healthcare organizations. The researchers also purposed to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the healthcare information breaches and conclude from them. The researchers will then use the findings from this study to improve on the confidentiality of healthcare information.

The chief objective of this enquiry was to fix the present scientific inventions designed at vindicating the internal threats that may lead to data breach in healthcare organizations.

Research methodologies used

This research followed a quantitative research design. The researchers operationalized the variables as the levels of exposure to the healthcare facilities, organizational factors, and the binary value for information security breach. The investigators attained facts from the Department of Health and Human Services archives of dissimilar healthcare facilities. They then applied the binary logistic regression to assess the data breach model.

This investigation trailed a qualitative research design that distributes questionnaires to appraise the diverse settings of confidentiality breach. The contexts included consensual sexual activity and legal provisions that align with the ethical standards of caring for adolescents. Besides, the researchers analyzed the contemporary administrative and clinical information in the electronic health care records to determine how they threaten the confidentiality of breach.

This peer-reviewed study addresses everything using a simple moving average method and exponential research methods to assess the trends in data breaches in healthcare organizations. The results showed that hacking health information is prevalent among several healthcare organizations within the United States. These are the most common factors leading to information breaches in healthcare organizations, followed by illegal internal exposes. The results also showed that the frequency of these cases increases rapidly to the increase in the exposed health information records.

This research followed a qualitative research methodology. The researchers collected information from different sources of grey literature review that discusses the effectiveness of data security measures in combating confidentiality breaches in healthcare organizations. The results were then tabulated in a table and analyzed for inference.

Description of the strengths of the research methodologies castoff in the peer-review research like validity and reliability.

The research methodology used for this peer reviewed article is reliable as it presents tangible results that indicate various exposure levels, organizational factors, security factors, and healthcare data breaches.

I do not consider this research article to present reliable information as it does not indicate the cases of data breach in hospitals or healthcare organizations. Consequently, additional investigation is necessary to increase the fortifications made by implementing the best practices related to adolescent confidentiality.

The document from the outcomes of this reading is vastly measured to be valuable in the recognized research topic. Among the two research methodologies that were used, the simple moving exponential research method seems to be more reliable compared to the other one.

According to the results of this study, it is evident that such a reactive approach may not be reliable in protecting the critical information infrastructure of the healthcare system. Therefore, there is a theoretical shortfall in the research that doesn’t address the architecture of cyber defense.

General Notes/Comments

The keywords included: Cyber security, cyber risk, security, data breach, risk management, exposure, and level of exposure, vulnerability assessment, cyber analytics, and security modeling.

The keywords for this peer-reviewed article included:

Adolescent medicine, best practices, confidentiality, health ethics, and health law.

The keywords used for this research study included: data breaches, healthcare information, data security, confidentiality, cost effectiveness, and security measures.

References

McLeod, A., & Dolezel, D. (2018). Cyber-analytics: Modeling factors associated with healthcare data breaches. Decision Support Systems, Science Direct. 108, 57-68.

Pathak, P. R., & Chou, A. (2019). Confidential care for adolescents in the US Health Care System. Journal of patient-centered research and reviews, 6(1), 46.

Seh, A. H., Zarour, M., Alenezi, M., Sarkar, A. K., Agrawal, A., Kumar, R., & Ahmad Khan, R. (2020, June). Healthcare data breaches: Insights and implications. In Healthcare (Vol. 8, No. 2, p. 133). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Walker-Roberts, S., Hammoudeh, M., & Dehghantanha, A. (2018). A systematic review of the availability and efficacy of countermeasures to internal threats in healthcare critical infrastructure. IEEE Access, 6, 25167-25177.

Running head: EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE WEEK 4 1

EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE WEEK 4 2

A Brief Description of the Clinical Issue

The identified clinical issue is the breaches to the confidentiality of patient information confidentiality breaches encompass the security issues that harm the integrity of organizational information (Hammouchi, 2019). A data breach occurs anytime malicious people access information without legal permission. Therefore, the biggest confidentiality threat is hacking.

The medical profession needs to protect their patients’ confidentiality. They have a moral obligation to ensure the confidentiality and discretion in the healthcare facilities. Medical practice should involve trust between the patients and the physicians (Yeng, 2021). This responsibility of maintaining patient confidentiality provides the basic framework for the presence of some trust level among the healthcare professionals, specifically when developing relationships between the physicians and the patients.

All healthcare officials and personnel need to respect patient confidentiality and safeguard their wellbeing. Health information of patients does not only depend on the diagnoses, objective observations, and recreational activities but also the personal impressions about the clients, their characters, lifestyle, and other recreational activities (Pathak, 2019). Improper disclosure of patient information could potentially harm their reputation and lead to cases of personal humiliation, financial fraud, and loss in great opportunities.

Various people practice medicine today. They include physicians, surgeons, nurses, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare personnel. The large number of people visiting hospitals always leaves their information in the hospital’s records (McLeod, 2018). It is for this reason that the healthcare professionals need to protect this information by ensuring strict measures to ensure the confidentiality to patient information. Therefore, healthcare organizations do not condone careless behaviors such as sharing patient information in public, indiscretion, and maliciously using this information.

PICO (T) Question

The PICO (T) question identifies the research problems and the major components that constitute the research. In exploring the research about confidentiality in patient information, this research develops a PICOT question that will enable the researchers to drive the research process. The PICO question is: Patients between the ages of 45-70 years who have signed up for the hospital’s portal are likely to lose their private information for lack of understanding of the portal compared to patients between 16-40 years of age.

· Population (P): Patients between 45-70 years.

· Intervention (I): Patient portal.

· Comparison (C): Patients between 16-40 years of age.

· Outcome (O): Losing private information for lack of understanding of the portal.

The search terms used for the development of the PICO (T) question included PICO, PICOT, PICOT question, PICOT process. The search database included Google Scholar, JSTOR, and Walden University Library. During the search, I came across different research articles that are relevant to the search item while others were completely irrelevant. The two different databases in the Walden University Library included the Computer Science Database and the Ovid Nursing Books Database. These databases helped in finding the peer-reviewed articles that will be used throughout this research process.

I identified six major strategies that can be applied to increase the effectiveness and rigor of the database search for the PICOT question. They include conceptualizing the search process, using relevant vocabulary, revising the search process, combining concepts and terms using Boolean operators, learning about the rules and regulations of database search, and searching different databases.

References

Hammouchi, H., Cherqi, O., Mezzour, G., Ghogho, M., & El Koutbi, M. (2019). Digging deeper into data breaches: An exploratory data analysis of hacking breaches over time. Procedia Computer Science, 151, 1004-1009.

McLeod, A., & Dolezel, D. (2018). Cyber-analytics: Modeling factors associated with healthcare data breaches. Decision Support Systems, Science Direct. 108, 57-68.

Pathak, P. R., & Chou, A. (2019). Confidential care for adolescents in the US Health Care System. Journal of patient-centered research and reviews, 6(1), 46.

Yeng, P. K., Szekeres, A., Yang, B., & Snekkenes, E. A. (2021). Mapping the Psychosocialcultural Aspects of Healthcare Professionals’ Information Security Practices: Systematic Mapping Study. JMIR Human Factors, 8(2), e17604.

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