Discuss Structural and Functional Components of the Theory

Discuss Structural and Functional Components of the Theory

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Transitions Theory Afaf I Meleis

Munayfah Aldhafeeri

Hafer albatin University

NUR611

Dr. Salwa Yousef

October 30, 2021

Transitions Theory Afaf I Meleis

Introduction

The aim of Transition theory offers a corrective focus that can enrich our understanding of development, formation, as well as stressful responses to both predictable and unpredictable change in human life. Transition theory introduces a broader view of rationality that includes relationships, change overtime, and the person in particular situations and contexts. Giving birth; becoming parents; growing up; coping with chronic illnesses; recovering from injury or acute illness; changes in jobs and family structures, communities, or cultures all demand studying persons in their social relationships, context, and their experience of transitioning into new self-understandings and new life worlds. . Afaf Meleis transitions theory thereby helps patients adapt to changes during the transfer of one situation to the other .The goal of transition theory is to prepare individuals and families for developmental, situational and health illness transition, and care of them during the transition. The goal is to ensure they are able to cope with the change. the goal of transition theory also to describe, predict, and explain the nursing phenomena because Nursing is concerned with growth and development, health promotion, coping with the demands of the human experience of illness and recovery by providing a nursing practice foundation, help promote more knowledge, and illustrating in which direction nursing should work to achieve their goals in the future. Nurses help people acquire or change roles by modeling behaviors, allowing their clients to rehearse roles, and providing them with support while they are developing these roles.

Structural and Functional Components of the Theory

The structural components of transition theory are well distinguished through several concepts. This includes transition patterns, properties of transition experiences, conditions of transitions, and response patterns (Lindmark, 2019). The structural components help the nurse to understand the individual and identify the appropriate assessment points and intervention points. Nurses help people acquire or change roles by modeling behaviors, allowing their clients to rehearse roles, and providing them with support while they are developing these roles. Transition theory addresses psychology and social science in nursing by offering a corrective focus to enrich formation understanding and predictable and unpredictable changes Brenna, 2019). Thereby, transition theory is structured logically, which involves formulation and framework used to provide an enabling environment.

Relationship between the Structure and function.

The Structure and the function of the Afaf theory are interconnected and interrelated. The Structure provides the nurses with the primary goal to prepare families and individuals for situational, developmental, organizational, and health-illness transitions. Also, the Structure offers nursing therapeutics with nursing interventions nurses can use to care for families and patients during the transition. Nurses can use the nursing therapeutic interventions to improve the patients’ wellbeing and the quality of their lives.

Nursing therapeutics entails three processes nursing therapeutic processes. The processes entail procedures from drug prescription, surgical procedures, and psychotherapy. The primary concern and aim of the therapeutical practices are to improve the function of diagnosis and then advance the health concern level of the patients. Many health nurses have included the nursing transitions in the acute care process of addressing the patients’ needs. Eventually, promoted level of wellness of the patients is due to the structural framework of the transition theory.

Transition structure and functioning have led to the understanding of the patient. Eventually, the Structure resulted in the easy and faster assessment of the patient. Also, the Structure allows healthcare professionals and researchers to establish the different prototypes of transition encounters. Transition is possible since the nurses are fully conversant with the patients with them. Understanding of the patient is achieved through having a relationship between the transition structure theory to its functions. Therefore, it is understood that the Structure of the theory results to Nurses and other healthcare providers can effectively prepare patients for transitions as a nursing therapeutic.

Preparation is because the Nurses can educate their patients in transition to generate the best environment equipped for growth. The preparation leads to patients getting ready for change, and eventually, the patients quickly adapt to the shifts. The transition is achievable through a complete comprehension of the individuals or families

. The theory requires analysis of every transition situation to develop a unique sketch of individuals’ or family’s readiness (Bohner, 2017). Eventually, the readiness assessment will determine the level of success of the transition process.

Transition acts as a process indicator. Due to the exhibited relationship between the transition theory’s Structure and function, Meleis and Schumacher have proven that the transitions are process and outcome indicators. The shifts in detailed context and wholesome show the patient’s responses to the accrued changes that the nurses might undertake to improve healthcare and wellness; as a result of being process indicators, the transitions guide and dictated how the patient’s health should be handled as cared. The indicators enable the nurses and other health personnel to assess the patient’s vulnerability before undertaking any transitional changes on the patient’s health. The indicators also guide the nurses and the doctors to perform prompt analysis and intervention to accelerate wholesome outcomes.

The interrelation of the Structure and functions gives rise to outcome indicators. The outcome indicators are the projections of what is expected out of a transition. Also, the outcome indicators give rise to the side effects of the projected transition (Themes, 2017). Here the vulnerability of the patients is assessed. The assessment provides the doctors and nurses a clear indication of the expected outcome, and they try to find a remedy if the outcome happens against expectations. On many occasions, the outcome indicators are seen to boost and improve the confidence in the patients. Confidence is because the patients are aware of the expected result on their health after the transition. Also, to the doctors and nurses, outcome indicators which are part of the transition theory structure, increased confidence, connectedness, coping, and interaction, determine healthy transitions. The interconnection with the patients goes high are the patients have great trust in the nurses.

For transition to occur successfully, there are transitional conditions. Transition conditions influence how individuals progress throughout a transition period. Awareness, engagement, changes and differences, period, and critical points and events are important properties of transition that allow for an effective transition. The conditions set a peaceful platform for the patients to gain much trust in the process, for the conditions are set to enhance the wellness of the patient’s healthcare and improve the level of transition. Personal conditions such as cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation, and attitudes like stigma related to transition encounters can influence the transition (Themes, 2017). With the rise of the transition conditions, the phobia, attitudes, cultural beliefs are eliminated. Preparedness creates a harmonious environment between the patient and nurses, and eventually transition process becoming successful (Bohner, 2017). The success of patients and nurses can be aware, engage, understand the changes and differences patients experience, the timespan for transition, and the critical points and events of the transition.

Transition theory diagram

20. Transitions theory | Nurse Key

Diagram discussion

Nature of transition- comprises types, patterns, and properties of transition.

Categories of transitions- comprises situational, developmental, organizational, and health-illness

Organizational transitions represent the changing environmental situations affecting patients’ and healthcare providers’ lives.

Patterns of transition- comprise complexity and diversity. The patterns help understanding individuals with multiple transition (Themes, 2017). They are eventually creating an appealing outcome.

Properties of transition- include five sub-concepts. The first is awareness, change and difference, engagement, critical points and events, and period,” which are fundamentally connected as a complex process (Smith, 2019). Properties yield more outstanding performance.

Transition conditions- situations that affect how an individual moves through a transition like an environment

Nursing therapeutics- involves patient needs assessment and complete understanding of the patient.

Patterns of response/process and outcome indicators- typify healthy responses such as healthy interaction, engaging, resourcefulness, coping, and confidence.

Circles of contagiousness

The Transitions theory is adopted globally because the concept of transition is a global phenomenon. The theory is used in nursing education, practice, and research. And for our primary concern, the theory is used in the nursing faculties, and students across the globe have adopted the transitions theory to develop research programs. Transition theory was initially developed for research only, but currently, it is used in outpatient care, daily life, institutional care in hospitals and communities, and within the municipality (Halpin & Hodge, 2019). On many occasions today, the Transitions theory is also used in occupational therapy, social work, and oral health.

Theory resulted in caring for the vulnerable. The Nurses use the theory in caring for aging families, researching aging transitions, immigrant transitions, and recuperation from cardiac surgery worldwide (Lindmark et al., 2019). The incorporation of this theory is because it has a clear framework of how it works. Also, the Transitions theory was adopted by nursing schools during the Covid-19 pandemic to transition nursing education from conventional classrooms to online classes (Lindmark et al., 2019). The Covid-19 pandemic has greatly affected education, particularly nursing education Lindmark et al., 2019). The pandemic has led to adopting the transition theory for the transition of teaching techniques that are currently being experienced globally. In addition, many healthcare organizations have adopted the transitions theory to examine the process of discharging a patient from a hospital to receive care from home (Lindmark et al., 2019). Also, many healthcare institutions adopted the transitions theory because of their focus on changes, providing a framework that recognizes universal aspects of nursing and supports nurses’ matters regarding the changing societies and systems.

Usefulness of Transition Theory

Transitions theory has been used extensively in research all around the world to examine a broad spectrum of transition experiences resulting from health–illness, developmental, situational, and organizational transitions and the effect of these transitions on the health of individuals, families, and communities. It has been used to develop strategies and interventions to facilitate healthy transitions. The goal of intervention within transitions theory is to facilitate and inspire healthy process and outcome responses. Nursing interventions that support healthy process behaviors as well as healthy outcome behaviors include the following: clarifying meanings, providing expertise, setting goals, modeling the role of others; providing resources, opportunities for rehearsal, access to reference groups and role models, and debriefing. Also, it used to promote health and wellbeing prior to, during and at the end of change event. With the many changes populations face, such as increasing life expectancy, increasing non-communicable diseases, living longer with Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s or cancer and being discharged earlier from hospitals, all of which require longer continuous care to be assumed by patients and families, there is an urgent need for nurses to provide the care processes that enhance healthy transitions and outcomes. Therefore, Health care systems must include and implement policies that allow the appointment of transitions’ nurses, or health care teams, to insure healthy processes and outcomes for the changes that patients and families experience. That means, nurses are instrumental in facilitating transitions toward wellbeing and quality of life.

External Components of Transition Theory

Change triggers initiate a process with patterns of responses that are both observable and non-observable behaviors and either functional or dysfunctional. These responses start from the moment a change trigger is anticipated and are influenced by personal, community, societal, or global conditions. Among the personal conditions are the meaning and the values attributed to the change and the context of it. A person’s experience and responses are also influenced by the expectations of how self or others will reacted the level of knowledge and skills related to the change, and the belief about what is expected of those undergoing the change. Other personal conditions that influence the experience and responses are the level of planning and the level of existing health and well-being of the person, the family, the organization, the community, or the country at large (Schumacher & Meleis, 1994). Community conditions, such as support from partners and the availability of role models and resources, promote or inhibit effective healthy transitions. Community norms about and resources for dealing with sexism, homophobia, poverty, ageism, and nationalism also could promote or inhibit healthy experiences and outcomes of transitions. Global conditions that could influence the experience of transitions, including policies and mandates developed by international organizations, define how certain triggers are viewed and appear at the global consciousness. For example, the transition of the HIV/AIDS patient through the diagnosis and treatment process could be mediated by the global attention and resources that have been given to researchers, clinicians, and patients who have or are associated with the disease. There are vast differences between how infected individuals experienced the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS before the global attention to it and post–President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief aid offered by the Western world. Therefore, it is important to understand individual’s value and known their concept and experience about the change. On the other hand known the social and community view about the change to facilitate healthy transition.

Conclusion

Transition theory aims to help people through changes that happen during their life. Also, it assist nurses in recognizing appropriate strategies for support patients ,and help nurses to promote more knowledge, and illustrating in which direction nursing should work to achieve their goals in the future. The Structure and the function of the Afaf theory are interconnected and interrelated. Structure component offers nursing therapeutics with nursing interventions nurses can use to care for families and patients during the transition. The transition is achievable through a complete comprehension of the individuals or families. Transition conditions influence how individuals progress throughout a transition period. Awareness, engagement, changes and differences, period, and critical points and events are important properties of transition that allow for an effective transition. This theory help the nurse in different situation specially when the nurses caring for the vulnerable aging families, researching aging transitions, immigrant transitions, and recuperation from cardiac surgery worldwide (Lindmark et al., 2019). A transition is a fundamental approach that not only leads to quality health care but also empowers nurses to be more proactive in identifying change, especially during patients transfer.

References

Bohner, K. (2017). Theory Description, Critical Reflection, and Theory Evaluation of the Transitions Theory of Meleis et al. according to Chinn and Kramer (2011). Advances in Nursing Science, 40(3), E1–E19. https://doi.org/10.1097/ans.0000000000000152

Halpin, A. P., & Hodge, F. S. (2019). Transition Theory Applications–“Wishes.” American Journal of Education and Information Technology, 3(1), 12.

Lindmark, U., Bülow, P. H., Mårtensson, J., Rönning, H., Ahlstrand, I., Broström, A., Fransson, E. I., Fridlund, B., Gunnarsson, N., Henricsson, M., Kjellström, S., & Sandgren, A. (2019). The use of the concept of transition in different disciplines within health and social welfare: An integrative literature review. Nursing Open, 6(3), 664–675. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.249

Meleis, A. I. (2019). Facilitating and Managing Transitions: An Imperative for Quality Care. Investigacion En Enfermeria: Imagen y Desarrollo, 21(1), 1–6.

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

Themes, U. (2017, January 8). 20. Transitions theory. Nurse Key. https://nursekey.com/20-transitions-theory/

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