Discuss controversy related to use and over-use of antibiotic therapy.

Discuss controversy related to use and over-use of antibiotic therapy.

Advanced Pharmacology Assignment
Session 6 Assignment (25 points): For session assignments, each student is to choose one of the topic options below and write a 300-word evidence-based summary to include topic specific pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, special considerations, and precautions. Include a minimum of 2 resources (i.e. research, EBP, clinical guidelines). Post to the session discussion (faculty will evaluate assignments directly from the session discussion). The summary is due to be posted to the session discussion by midnight the first Sunday of the session. Refer to Session Assignment Rubric and Guidelines. Choose 1 of the following topic option and post summary by midnight August 2: An agent utilized for the reproductive system; or Contraceptive or hormone replacement agent. Include pros and cons of various contraceptive agents; or Principles for prescribing anti-infective agents or treatment related to a specific infection; or An agent utilized in the treatment of bacterial infections or viral illness. Discuss controversy related to use and over-use of antibiotic therapy. Consider including a special population. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment

Advanced Pharmacology Assignment

Various reproductive system sites are either vulnerable to an agent or can e manipulated by drugs. Agents that have high molecular density and are water-soluble are likely to cross the blood-testis or the placental obstacle. Additionally, if the fetus in the uterus is exposed to specific agents, it may cause abnormalities due to toxic substances called teratogens. The examples of teratogens include an antiemetic and sedative agent. Drugs may be teratogenic for males if they destroy the genetic composition of the spermatozoa (Duta, 2015). There is a minimal barrier to chemicals entering into the semen or breast milk.


Teratogens have special considerations to be looked into before administration. Tetracycline, an antibiotic can transverse the membrane of the placenta and is left in the embryo in teeth and bones (Tsamantioti & Hahmi, 2020). However, pregnant women should avoid the drug since it causes a yellow discoloration of the deciduous teeth and decreased development of the long bones. Infectious agents such as Congenital rubella leads to mental retardation and birth complications when they transverse the placenta and gain entry to the fetal blood (Columbia. Edu, 2018). Advanced Pharmacology Assignment

Teratogens are known to tend to affect the growth of the fetus in the first weeks of pregnancy just after conception. However, there are precautions to be considered to combat the effects of teratogens. When planning for a pregnancy, it is recommended to consult a physician concerning drug prescriptions that could harm the unborn baby. Chemicals such as fungicides, pesticides and rodenticides may affect the unborn child hence should be avoided (Bastow, 2017). Pregnant women should not work near dangerous substances and chemicals that contain teratogens. Lastly, expectant women should avoid smoking or consuming alcohol since these teratogens could raise the risk of birth complications and other threatening conditions.


Bastow, B. (2017). Teratology and Drug Use During Pregnancy: Overview, Approach to Patients Needing Medication During Pregnancy, Example Mechanisms of Teratogenesis. Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 31 July 2020, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/260725-overview.Advanced Pharmacology Assignment

Columbia.edu. (2018). Retrieved 31 July 2020, from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf.

Dutta, S. (2015). Human teratogens and their effects: a critical evaluation. International Journal of Information Research and Review, 2(03), 525-536.

Tsamantioti, E. S., & Hashmi, M. F. (2020). Teratogenic Medications. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.Advanced Pharmacology Assignment

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