Describe the websites, applications, or multimedia resources.
Three Electronic Health Care Resources.
Research two to three electronic health care resources. These could be websites, mobile applications, or multimedia resources used by health care consumers for their medical needs.
Based on your research, write a 350- to 700-word summary in which you:
Describe the websites, applications, or multimedia resources.
Describe how health care providers use these resources to enhance their products and services.
Explain the implications of using these resources in the health care industry. What are the implications for the consumer?
Experience Implementing Electronic Health Records in Three East African Countries William M. Tierneya, Marion Achiengb, Elaine Bakerc, April Bella, Paul Biondicha, Paula Braitsteina,d, Daniel Kayiwae, Sylvester Kimaiyod, Burke Mamlina, Brian McKowna, Nicholas Musinguzif, Winstone Nyandikod,Joseph Rotichd, John Sidlea,d, Abraham Siikad, Martin Werea, Ben Wolfea, Kara Wools-Kaloustiana, Ada Yeunga, Constantin Yiannoutsosa, and the Tanzania-Uganda OpenMRS Consortium aIndiana University School of Medicin , Regenstrief Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA bWorld Health Organization, Kampala, Uganda cUniversity of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania dMoi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya eMakerere University, Kampala, Uganda fMbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda AbstractIntroduction: Efficient use of health care resources in low-income countries by providers and local and national manag-ers requires timely access to patient data. Objective: To im-plement electronic health records (EHRs) in HIV clinics in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Results: We initially developed and implemented an EHR in Kenya through a mature aca-demic partnership. The EHR was then implemented in six HIV clinics in Tanzania and Uganda in collaboration with their National AIDS Control Programmes. All implementations were successful, but the system’s use and sustainability varied depending on who controlled clinic funding. Conclusions: Successful EHR use and sustainability were enhanced by local control of funds, academic partnerships (mainly by leveraging research funds), and in-country technology support. Keywords:Computerized medical record systems, Developing countries, Africa South of the Sahara∗∗The Tanzania-Uganda OpenMRS Consortium included Na-tional AIDS Control Programme of Tanzania (Dr. Geoffrey Somi), Morogoro Regional Hospital (Dr. Rita Lyamunya, Mayanga Mbau-la), Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dr. Hussein Mtiro, Willy Wil-lifest), Tumbi Special Hospital (Japhal Mwamufupa, Joseph Myalla), Masaka Regional Referral Hospital (Drs. Penina Iutung, Kenya Mu-gisha, John Ssali, Michael Ssonko), Mbale Regional Referral Hospi-tal (Dr. Peter Masaba, Helen Okwii), Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (Dr. Mwebesa Bwana, Nneka Emenonyu), and the World Health Organization (WHO) (Dr. Mark Spohr, Christopher Bailey). This work was funded by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, WHO, the East African Consortium of the International Epidemi-ologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS, and the United States Agency for International Development as part of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).IntroductionHealth care is an information business – most of what clini-cians do is collect data (e.g. by history and physical exam), record data (in the patient chart), process data (choose treat-ments), and transmit information (via orders and letters). In-formation is necessary to provide and manage health care at all levels, from individual patients to health care systems to national Ministries of Health (MOH). The efficiency, effec-tiveness, accountability, and quality of health care at each of these levels depends on having accurate, timely data. In de-veloped countries, electronic health records (EHRs) are be-coming a necessary component of health care. For example, the U.K. and Sweden have national EHRs, and the U.S. has committed to wide use of EHRs by 2014 . Developing countries trying to squeeze the most care from their limited health care resources have similar needs for time-ly health information. Yet being on the far side of the “digital divide” results in low-income countries having insufficient information to effectively manage their health systems. Since 2004, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) committed more than $60 billion for HIV/AIDS care in developing countries. With more and growing HIV treat-ment programs, EHRs are becoming a necessity for managing and monitoring patients and health care systems while provid-ing funders with data on the care provided and outcomes achieved. In this article, we describe our experience imple-menting OpenMRS , an open-source EHR, in three East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. We evalu-ated each site and describe factors that led to successful im-plementation and sustainability of OpenMRS. Implementing an Electronic Health Reco
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