Define Diabetes and Drug Treatments .

Define Diabetes and Drug Treatments .

Diabetes adds to the burden of chronic diseases in the developed world. Type 2 Diabetes is diagnosed in patients, whose organism either rejects insulin or does not produce it in the quantities needed to maintain a normal level of blood glucose. Contemporary pharmaceutical companies are actively involved in producing new drugs to improve the health and wellbeing of patients with Type 2 Diabetes.Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

Repaglinide is one of many medications used for Type 2 Diabetes. Owens (1998) writes that this type of diabetes is associated with the unique patterns of insulin response to meals. “The mealtime insulin in patients with Type 2 Diabetes is blunted and delayed, whereas basal levels often remain within the normal range” (Owens, 1998, p. S28). Therefore, patients with Type 2 Diabetes need to restore normal or close-to-normal patterns of insulin secretion after mealtimes, but without additional secretion following the stage of postabsorption (Owens, 1998). Repaglinide was developed in response to the unique pathophysiological features of Type 2 Diabetes. It is derived from carbamoylmethyl benzoic acid, which is approved for use in medicine. The drug is absorbed within less than one hour, and it is rapidly deactivated in the liver (Owens, 1998).Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

Repaglinide is administered according to the patient’s mealtimes, with the total daily dose being adjusted for each meal (Owens, 1998). In other words, a patient with Diabetes Type 2 is expected to take a regular dose of Repaglinide 15-30 minutes before each meal. Using Repaglinide for skipped meals or taking two doses at once is not allowed. In case of an extra meal, an extra dose of Repaglinide should be administered. Owens (1998) confirms that Repaglinide is particularly suitable for patients with flexible lifestyles. However, its effectiveness decreases in the absence of dietary and physical activity interventions, which are strongly recommended for patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

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Unlike Diabetes Type 1, Type 2 is associated mostly with long-term complications. Lehne and Rosenthal (2014) confirm that short-term complications are visible mostly in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Still, the risks of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis should not be ignored. In a long-term perspective, Type 2 Diabetes has profound implications for patients’ health and quality of life. Macrovascular damage results in cardiovascular complications that are typical for this type of diabetes, such as hypertension and heart disease (Lehne & Rosenthal, 2014). Diabetes Type 2 frequently leads to retinopathy, which requires that patients with diabetes undergo regular eye exams (Lehne & Rosenthal, 2014). Diabetes damages kidneys, and diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious long-term effects of Diabetes Type 2 on patients. However, the latter are not as susceptible to its risks as patients with Type 1 Diabetes (Lehne & Rosenthal, 2014).Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

As for drugs, they are claimed to be safe for patients in the long run. Apart from reducing the levels of blood glucose, antyhyperglycemic drugs such as Repaglinide improve long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (Raz, 2013). Yet, Repaglinide is a relatively new drug, and the risks of adverse effects should also be considered. Katsuyama, Hiraishi, Hakoshima and Yanai (2013) reported a case of severe thrombocytopenia due to Repaglinide. Thrombocytopenia was successfully reversed, once Repaglinide was discontinued. Some patients may develop allergies or intolerance towards certain drugs, including Repaglinide. Others may find it more suitable to focus on dietary controls and physical activity, although few patients with diagnosed diabetes can avoid taking drugs.

Contemporary medicine offers rich solutions to improve the health and wellbeing of patients with Type 2 Diabetes. New drugs are developed to address the major health challenges associated with the disease. Repaglinide is just one of the many drugs administered to patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Its effectiveness should be considered in the context of other non-pharmacological models of diabetes management.Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

References
Katsuyama, H., Hiraishi, C., Hakoshima, Y. & Yanai, H. (2013). Severe thrombocytopenia due to Repaglinide in a patient with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(3), e36.
Lehne, R.A. & Rosenthal, L. (2014). Pharmacology for nursing care. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders.
Owens, D.R. (1998). Repaglinide – prandial glucose regulator: A new class of oral antidiabetic drugs. Diabetic Medicine, 15(4), S28-S36.
Raz, I. (2013). Guideline approach to therapy in patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(2), S139-S144. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

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