Assignment: The Basic Tenets

Assignment: The Basic Tenets
Assignment: The Basic Tenets

as the primary authority on the pain

experience, thereby prompting clinicians

to pay closer attention to clients’ description

of their lived experience of pain rather than

relying on a standardized definition of pain.

From a holistic perspective, all elements that

comprise the pain experience are equally

important and frame clients’ perception of

pain, the behaviors clients use to manifest

the impact of the pain experience, and

clients’ responses to varied methods used

to treat pain. Being knowledgeable about

pain management practice is an expected

competency of every registered nurse, yet

many nurses continue to describe barriers

that impede the management of clients’ pain

(Rejeh, Almadi, Mohammadi, Kazemnejad,

& Anoosheh, 2009). The literature supports

the notion that nurses’ knowledge and

attitudes about pain management is linked

to their ability to help clients successfully

manage pain; updating knowledge about

methods for relieving pain is key to improving

practice (Duignan & Dunn, 2008; Lui, So,

& Fong, 2008; Matthews & Malcolm, 2007;

Xue, Schulman-Green, Czaplinski, Harris,

& McCorkle, 2007).

Many strategies have been developed

to help bridge the gap between what nurses

know and what they actually do in practice

to help manage clients’ pain (Dihle,

Bjølseth, & Helseth, 2006). The problem

of under-treated pain persists and is likely

complicated by the lack of application of

theory to guide pain management practice.

When coupled with nurses’ uncertainty

about how to autonomously treat clients

in pain, pain relief outcomes are often

unsatisfactory. Theories, particularly

theories that have the potential to resonate

with clinicians and impact care of the whole

client, may be particularly powerful in

narrowing the theory-practice gap and

providing clues to more effective,

comprehensive pain management. The

application of a holistic philosophy of

care emphasizes the role of clinicians in

partnering with clients in the design and

implementation of mutually agreeable plans

for the relief of pain—plans that sufficiently

address the dimensions of the whole

person’s lived pain experience. Holistically,

the ultimate goals for the nurse are to better

understand the pain experience from the

client’s perspective, foster healing, and

deliver care that strives to provide the

greatest extent of pain relief possible.

Anchored in the Scope and Standards of

Holistic Nursing (2007), the five foundational

concepts of Dossey’s theory of integral

nursing articulate the qualities and way of

being that characterize the holistic, integral

nurse and prompt the nurse to attend to the

many dimensions of pain affecting the whole

client. In this way, the nurse invites the client

experiencing pain to participate in the

development of potentially transformative,

relationship-centered interactions and to

provide feedback on interventional success

or the need for further improvement.

The primary purpose of this paper is

to introduce the basic tenets of the theory

of integral nursing to aid clinicians in

designing caring interventions focused

on healing and grounded in the theory’s

holistic, relationship-centered approach.

Following the unfolding of the basic tenets

of this theory, examples of the application

of the theory to pain management are

proposed.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

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