Assignment: Resistance-training Program
Assignment: Resistance-training Program
Both the ST and EST groups participated in a resistance-training program using elastic tubing. Both groups were educated during four separate group meetings at their respective locations on proper methods to perform the exercises with the elastic resistance bands (Thera-band; Hygienic Corporation, Akron, OH). The resistance program was adapted from Mikesky, Topp, Wigglesworth, Harsha, and Edwards (1994) and consisted of six lower body and five upper body
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exercises performed twice per week for 8 weeks. The initial 2 weeks were lead by the primary investigator in order to teach the participants and the activities directors the exercises. Following this instructional period, the activities directors (individuals who were hired by the administration of each respective facility to coordinate and instruct fitness and recreational activities for the residents and who were not part of the research team) led the exercises in their respective locations from week 3 through 8. Each exercise session was preceded by a 5-minute warm-up, followed by 50 minutes of muscle-strengthening exercises using the elastic tubing, and a 5-minute cool down. Participants were asked to exercise at a light to moderate level of effort. The muscle-strengthening exercises that were performed included chair squats, hip lifts, knee extensions, hamstring curls, seated foot raises, chest press, seated back rows, lateral shoulder raises, triceps extensions, and bicep curls. Standing calf- raises were performed using body weight as resistance.
Starting tubing size varied with each exercise and was selected on the individual’s ability to perform 10 repetitions using proper form. The participants were instructed to begin with the least resistive tube during the initial meeting. If no soreness was experienced in the days following, they were instructed to increase to the next level. Participants performed one set of each exercise during weeks 1 and 2, two sets during weeks 3 and 4, and three sets during the remaining weeks. Following the initial instruction and choice of tubing, subjects were instructed to move to the next larger tubing size when they could perform 12 repetitions with proper exercise form during their last set. All participants were asked to complete an exercise log on each exercise training day to record the number of repetitions they successfully completed, the band color used, and associated symptoms or progress.
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