Assignment: Handgrip Dynamometer.

Assignment: Handgrip Dynamometer.
Assignment: Handgrip Dynamometer.

PAPADOPOULOS AND J. M. JAGER
averaged for an overall quality of life score. An overall QOL-SV score ≥ 1.50 is considered as very good, 1.50–0.51 as acceptable, 0.50 to −0.50 as problematic, and finally, an overall score ≤ −1.50 as very problematic. Raphael et al. (1997) reported high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > .90) in three areas: importance, satisfaction, and overall score of quality of life. Participants also completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-S), a 15-item questionnaire to evaluate depression. For clinical purposes, a score greater than 5 points out of the 15 questions is suggestive of depression and further evaluation should be considered. This questionnaire has been found to have a high level of internal validity (Cronbach’s alpha = .80) (D’Ath, Katona, Mullan, Evans, & Katona, 1994). The sum of depressive answers is reported. The last questionnaire used was the Fatigue Questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of a 100-millimeter line with descriptors from no fatigue at all to worst fatigue ever experienced at each extreme. Participants were asked to score their level of perceived fatigue in the preceding week by placing a perpendicular marking along the line. Scores were calculated by measuring the distance in millimeters from the lower extreme to the marked line.

Functional ability was evaluated using the Up and Go test. In this test, the participants were instructed to rise from a chair, walk a distance of 3 meters, turn, return to the chair, and sit down again as quickly as possible. Time was measured beginning at the verbal command “GO” of the primary investigator and terminated when the participant returned and sat down on the chair. Participants completed 3 trials and the average time to the 10th of a second was used. Finally, strength was assessed using a handgrip dynamometer. The participants were instructed to squeeze the handgrip dynamometer as hard as they could by using their dominant hand. Each participant completed three attempts and the average score to the nearest kilograms was used.

Statistical analysis

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