Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers Week 1 discussion

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

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Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents

Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels

Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action

Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission” NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Accessible player

Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Week 3 discussion

Discussion: The Impact of Ethnicity on Antidepressant Therapy

Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders you will see in clinical practice. Treatment for this disorder, however, can vary greatly depending on client factors, such as ethnicity and culture. As a psychiatric mental health professional, you must understand the influence of these factors to select appropriate psychopharmacologic interventions. For this NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers Discussion, consider how you might assess and treat the individuals in the case studies based on the provided client factors, including ethnicity and culture.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized plans of antidepressant therapy for adult and geriatric clients

Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in adult and geriatric clients requiring antidepressant therapy

Analyze the impact of ethnicity on antidepressant therapy

Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans

Apply knowledge of providing care to adult and geriatric clients presenting for antidepressant therapy

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 7, “Antidepressants”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Note: To access the following medications, click on the The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

amitriptyline

bupropion

citalopram

clomipramine

desipramine

desvenlafaxine

doxepin

duloxetine

escitalopram

fluoxetine

fluvoxamine

imipramine

ketamine

mirtazapine

nortriptyline

paroxetine

selegiline

sertraline

trazodone

venlafaxine

vilazodone

vortioxetine

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Howland, R. H. (2008a). Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D). Part 1: Study design. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(9), 21–24. doi:10.3928/02793695-20080901-06

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Howland, R. H. (2008a). Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D). Part 2: Study outcomes. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(19), 21–24. doi:10.3928/02793695-20081001-05

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Yasuda, S.U., Zhang, L. & Huang, S.-M. (2008). The role of ethnicity in variability in response to drugs: Focus on clinical pharmacology studies. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 84(3), 417–423. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170809004704/https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/ScienceResearch/…/UCM085502.pdf

To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #1: The man whose antidepressants stopped working

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #7: The case of physician do not heal thyself

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #29: The depressed man who thought he was out of options

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Week 7 discussion

Discussion: Sleep/Wake Disorders

It is not uncommon to experience a night or two of disrupted sleep when there is something major going on in your life. However, sleep/wake disorders are much more than an occasional night of disrupted sleep. A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that between 50 and 70 million American have problems with sleep/wake disorders (CDC, 2015). NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers Although the vast majority of Americans will visit their primary care provider for treatment of these disorders, many providers will refer patients for further evaluation. For this Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat the individuals based on the provided client factors.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized therapy plans for clients with sleep/wake disorders

Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in clients requiring therapy for sleep/wake disorders

Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans for clients presenting for sleep/wake therapy NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Apply knowledge of providing care to adult and geriatric clients presenting for sleep/wake disorders

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 11, “Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness and Their Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

alprazolam

amitriptyline

amoxapine

clomipramine

clonazepam

desipramine

diazepam

doxepin

flunitrazepam

flurazepam

hydroxyzine

imipramine

lorazepam

nortriptyline

ramelteon

temazepam

trazodone

triazolam

trimipramine

zaleplon

zolpidem

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Davidson, J. (2016). Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder: Going beyond the guidelines. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2(6), e16-e18. doi:10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.003707. Retrieved from http://bjpo.rcpsych.org/content/2/6/e16

To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.

Case 1: Volume 2, Case #16: The woman who liked late-night TV

Case 2: Volume 2, Case #11: The figment of a man who looked upon the lady

Case 3: Volume 1, Case #5: The sleepy woman with anxiety

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.). NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 9 discussion

Discussion: Presentations of ADHD

Although ADHD is often associated with children, this disorder is diagnosed in clients across the lifespan. While many individuals are properly diagnosed and treated during childhood, some individuals who have ADHD only present with subsyndromal evidence of the disorder. These individuals are often undiagnosed until they reach adulthood and struggle to cope with competing demands of running a household, caring for children, and maintaining employment. For this NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers Discussion, you consider how you might assess and treat individuals presenting with ADHD.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Assess client factors and history to develop personalized therapy plans for clients with ADHD

Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in clients requiring therapy for ADHD

Evaluate efficacy of treatment plans

Apply knowledge of providing care to adult and geriatric clients presenting for antidepressant therapy

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Clancy, C.M., Change, S., Slutsky, J., & Fox, S. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effectiveness of treatment in at-risk preschoolers; long-term effectiveness in all ages; and variability in prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Table B. KQ2: Long-term(>1 year) effectiveness of interventions for ADHD in people 6 years and older.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 12, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Mignon, L. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the ADHD tab.

Chapter 4, “ADHD Treatments”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Review the following medications:

For ADHD

armodafinil

amphetamine (d)

amphetamine (d,l)

atomoxetine

bupropion

chlorpromazine

clonidine

guanfacine

haloperidol

lisdexamfetamine

methylphenidate (d)

methylphenidate (d,l)

modafinil

reboxetine

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Optional Resources

Hodgkins, P., Shaw, M., McCarthy, S., & Sallee, F. R. (2012). The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: Does composition matter? CNS Drugs, 26(3), 245–268. doi:10.2165/11599630-000000000-00000

Psychiatric Times. (2016). A 5-question quiz on ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/adhd/5-question-quiz-adhd?GUID=AA46068B-C6FF-4020-8933-087041A0B140&rememberme=1&ts=22072016

To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following case studies to review for this Discussion. To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number.

Case 1: Volume 1, Case #13: The 8-year-old girl who was naughty NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Case 3: Volume 2, Case #21: Hindsight is always 20/20, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study.

Week 10 discussion

Discussion: Influencing Social Change

Individuals with psychiatric mental health disorders are frequently stigmatized not only by society as a whole, but also by their friends, family, and sometimes healthcare providers. In your role, however, you have the opportunity to become a social change agent for these individuals. For this Discussion, consider how you might make a positive impact for your clients and advocate for social change within your own community. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Apply strategies to become a social change agent for psychiatric mental health

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Angermeyer, M. C., Matschinger, H., & Schomerus, G. (2013). Attitudes towards psychiatric treatment and people with mental illness: Changes over two decades. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(2), 146–151. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/203/2/146.full

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Dingfelder, S. F. (2009). Stigma: Alive and well. American Psychological Association, 40(6), 56. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/06/stigma.aspx

Jenkins, J. H. (2012). The anthropology of psychopharmacology: Commentary on contributions to the analysis of pharmaceutical self and imaginary. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 36(1), 78–79. doi:10.1007/s11013-012-9248-0

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Price, L. H. (2010). Violence in America: Is psychopharmacology the answer? Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, 21(5), 5. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1556-7532

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Optional Resources

Bennett, T. (2015). Changing the way society understands mental health. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/April-2015/Changing-The-Way-Society-Understands-Mental-Health

Mechanic, D. (2007). Mental health services then and now. Health Affairs, 26(6), 1548–1550. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170605094514/http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/6/1548.full

Rothman, D. J. (1994). Shiny, happy people: The problem with “cosmetic psychopharmacology.” New Republic, 210(7), 34–38.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Reflect on how you might influence social change for psychiatric mental health. NURS 6630 Weekly Discussion Essay Assignment Papers.

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