An infant male, Sam, was born to Jane and Roberto.

An infant male, Sam, was born to Jane and Roberto.

Assignment: Infant Case Study

Question Description
For this Assignment, you will examine an infant case study to determine short-term developmental outcomes.

Refer to the following Case Study about Sam, a male infant:

An infant male, Sam, was born to Jane and Roberto. Jane works in the city as a medical transcriptionist, but requested 12 weeks of family leave effective immediately upon Sam’s birth.
Sam was born 6 weeks premature, by Cesarean delivery. His Apgar score at 1 minute was 5; after receiving oxygen, his Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8. Apart from the first few minutes after birth, Sam has not required oxygen or respiratory assistance. Because of his prematurity, Sam stayed in the hospital for 72 hours before he was discharged.
Jane drank occasionally throughout the pregnancy, but reported drinking most heavily during the last trimester of her pregnancy, which was about the time Roberto got laid off from his job. There is suspicion, although not confirmed, that Sam has Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Sam is a fussy eater, requiring short and frequent feedings. He has been home for 2 weeks and wakes up hungry every 2 hours. He does not sleep through the night.
Roberto and Jane live in a house in a rural area. They do not have a network of friends and family who live nearby who can help, but Jane’s mother has offered to move in with them temporarily. Roberto and Jane’s mother get along very well. Jane is debating whether she should reduce her family leave and go back to work earlier than she had planned.

Many of the details in the above case study have purposely been left ambiguous (e.g., ethnicity, geographic location, etc.) so that you can make some conjectures of your own and relate that to Sam’s short-term and long-term prognosis.

Write a 2- to 3-page paper and include the following:

Explain the environmental factors presented in the Case Study, as well as others that may be present but not specifically identified in the Case Study that might affect Sam’s development.
With the environmental factors you explained, further explain what you think the best case scenario and the worst case scenario might be for Sam’s short-term developmental outcomes and explain why.
Be specific, provide examples, and justify your response with citations from the Learning Resources/literature.
Resources needed:

Berk, L. E. (2018). Development through the lifespan (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Chapter 2, “Genetic and Environmental Foundations” (pp. 42-72)
Chapter 3, “Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby” (pp. 74-111)

Charness, M. E., Riley, E. P., & Sowell, E. R. (2016). Drinking during pregnancy and the developing brain: Is any amount safe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(2), 80–82. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.09.011

Entringer, S., Buss, C., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2015). Prenatal stress, development, health and disease risk: A psychobiological perspective—2015 Curt Richter Award Paper. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 366–375. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.019

Tzouma, V., Grepstad, M., Grimaccia, F., & Kanavos, P. (2015). Clinical, ethical, and socioeconomic considerations for prescription drug use during pregnancy in women suffering from chronic diseases. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 49(6), 947–956. doi:10.1177/2168479015589820

Grace, T., Bulsara, M., Robinson, M., & Hands, B. (2015). The impact of maternal gestational stress on motor development in late childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 87(1), 211–220.
The Impact of Maternal Gestational Stress on Motor Development in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study by Grace, T., Bulsara, M., Robinson, M., & Hands, B., in Child Development, 2015/October. Copyright 2015 by John Wiley & Sons-Journals. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons-Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center. Retrieved from…

March of Dimes Foundation. (2016). Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Birth defects. Retrieved from

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

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